Login
ROOT Category: Latest
Print

New Delhi, August 10, 2019: I sit on an advisory group guiding an EU-funded PhD incubator with 34 research projects across two Irish universities and one Scottish institution, where the focus is on marine and bio-energy.

Even in oil-dominated Aberdeen, serious questions are being asked about what the future course and research and development mix should be, in part because they risk being ostracised, indeed boycotted by Millennials who want nothing more to do with what they regard as dirty energy.

Take a look at the flow of energy-related news from universities worldwide. The overwhelming bulk of it relates to low-carbon energy and young people are pioneering it with zeal.

What follows is a surf through the highlights in mostly low-carbon energy R&D worldwide, starting with Lancaster University, where Professor David Antonelli is leading an international team of researchers who have discovered a new material that it is thought holds the key to cheaply unlocking the potential of hydrogen-powered vehicles.

ROAD HYDROGEN

In this field, a major obstacle has been the size, complexity and expense of the storage systems required, until now perhaps.

The new material identified by the Antonelli team could be used to make molecular sieves within fuel tanks that store the hydrogen and work alongside fuel cells in a hydrogen powered system.

The material, called Kubas Manganese Hydride-1 (KMH-1), would enable the design of tanks that are far smaller, cheaper, more convenient and energy dense than existing hydrogen fuel technologies. They would significantly out-perform battery-powered vehicles.

Prof Antonelli, who is chair in physical chemistry at Lancaster and has been researching this area for more than 15 years, said: “The cost of manufacturing our material is so low and the energy density it can store is so much higher than a lithium ion battery, that we could see hydrogen fuel cell systems that cost five times less than lithium ion batteries as well as providing a much longer range – potentially enabling journeys up to around four or five times longer between fill-ups.”

The material takes advantage of a chemical process called “Kubas binding”.

This process enables the storage of hydrogen by distancing the hydrogen atoms within an H2 molecule and works at room temperature.

This eliminates the need to split and bind the bonds between atoms, processes that require high energy, extreme temperatures and complex equipment.

The KMH-1 material also absorbs and stores any excess energy so external heat and cooling is not needed, which means less equipment needs to be used in vehicles, resulting in more efficient systems.

The material could enable the storage of four times as much hydrogen as existing hydrogen fuel technologies.

This should give car makers the flexibility to design vehicles with increased range or smaller tanks.

However, researchers believe there are many other applications for KMH-1.

“This material can also be used in portable devices such as drones or within mobile chargers so people could go on week-long camping trips without having to recharge their devices,” Prof Antonelli said.

 

“The real advantage this brings is in situations where you anticipate being off-grid for long periods of time. It could also be used to run a house.”

HARNESSING BUGS FOR ELECTRICITY STORAGE

At present, no existing technology provides large-scale storage for wind, solar and wave energy at a low financial and environmental cost.

However, according to American researchers at Cornell University, “engineered electro-active” microbes could be part of the solution. These are capable of borrowing an electron from solar or wind electricity and using the energy to break apart carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules from the air.

The microbes can then take the carbon atoms to make biofuels. They could be burned in a generator or added to petrol.

Buz Barstow, assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering at Cornell, said biology can play a significant role in creating a sustainable energy infrastructure.

He is the senior author of the academic paper Electrical Energy Storage With Engineered Biological Systems, published in the Journal of Biological Engineering.

Adding electrically engineered elements could make the approach even more productive and efficient than microbes alone.

Farshid Salimijazi, a graduate student in Prof Barstow’s lab, said: “We are suggesting a new approach where we stitch together biological and non-biological electrochemical engineering to create a new method to store energy.”

Natural photosynthesis already offers an example for storing solar energy at a huge scale according to the reports published in energyvoice.com.

But photosynthesis is regarded as being really inefficient at harvesting sunlight, absorbing less than 1% of energy that hits the cells.

This is where electroactive microbes come into play. They make it possible to replace biological light harvesting with photovoltaics.

The microbes can absorb electricity into their metabolism and use this energy to convert CO2 to biofuels.

The approach shows a lot of promise for making biofuels at higher efficiencies.

It is recognised that non-biological methods for using electricity for carbon fixation (assimilating carbon from CO2 into organic compounds, such as biofuels) are starting to match and even exceed microbes’ abilities.

However, electrochemical technologies are not good at creating the kinds of complex molecules necessary for biofuels and polymers. Engineered electroactive microbes could be designed to convert these simple molecules into much more complicated ones.

Combinations of engineered microbes and electrochemical systems could greatly exceed the efficiency of photosynthesis. For these reasons, a design that marries the two systems offers the most promising solution for energy storage.

The researchers plan to test out all possible combinations of electrochemical and biological components and find the best combinations.

PLASTICS TO FUELS

The growing war on plastics is now commanding headlines worldwide as the staggering scale of the challenge gradually dawns.

Worldwide, out of the 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic ever produced, more than 6bn is now plastic waste.

Any way of reducing this staggering legacy must be welcomed, including turning it into fuels of various kinds.

In a paper published in the Applied Energy journal, Washington State University’s Hanwu Lei and colleagues said they melted plastic waste at high temperature with activated carbon, a processed carbon with increased surface area, to produce jet fuel.

“Waste plastic is a huge problem worldwide,” said Mr Lei, an associate professor in WSU’s Department of Biological System Engineering. “This is a very good and relatively simple, way to recycle these plastics.”

Prof Lei tested low-density polyethylene and mixed a variety of waste plastic products, like water bottles, milk bottles and plastic bags and ground them down to about the size of a grain of rice.

The plastic granules were then placed on top of activated carbon in a tube reactor at a high temperature, ranging 430 to 571 degrees Celsius.
The carbon is a catalyst.

“Plastic is hard to break down,” Prof Lei warned. “You have to add a catalyst to help break the chemical bonds. There is a lot of hydrogen in plastics, which is a key component in fuel.”

Once the carbon catalyst has done its work, it can be separated out and reused on the next batch of waste plastic conversion. The catalyst can also be regenerated after losing its activity.

After testing several different catalysts at different temperatures, the best result they had produced was a mixture of 85% jet fuel and 15% diesel.

“We can recover almost 100% of the energy from the plastic
we tested,” Prof Lei said. “The fuel is very good quality and the by-product gases produced are high quality and useful as well.”

He also reckons the method for this process is easily scalable. It could work at a large facility or even on farms, where farmers could turn plastic waste into diesel.

LIQUID FUELS FROM THIN AIR

Hydrocarbons can still pull a few surprises, despite becoming increasingly regarded as energy pariahs and losing out to low carbon in the race for R&D funding.

Researchers from ETH Zurich have developed technology that produces liquid hydrocarbon fuels from sunlight and air.

For the first time anywhere they can demonstrate the entire thermochemical process chain under real field conditions. The new solar mini-refinery is located on the roof of ETH’s Machine Laboratory building.

Carbon-neutral fuels are crucial for making aviation and maritime transport sustainable. Help may be at hand as ETH researchers have developed a solar plant to produce synthetic liquid fuels that release as much CO2 during their combustion as previously extracted from the air for their production.

CO2 and water are extracted directly from ambient air and split using solar energy.

This process yields syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is subsequently processed into kerosene, methanol or other hydrocarbons. These drop-in fuels are ready for use in the existing global transport infrastructure.

Aldo Steinfeld, professor of renewable energy carriers at ETH Zurich, said: “This plant proves that carbon-neutral hydrocarbon fuels can be made from sunlight and air under real field conditions.

“The thermochemical process utilises the entire solar spectrum and proceeds at high temperatures, enabling fast reactions and high efficiency.”

The mini-refinery produces around one decilitre of fuel per day. However, Prof Steinfeld and his team are already working on a large-scale test of their solar reactor near Madrid.

The next project goal is to scale the technology for industrial implementation and make it economically competitive.

“A solar plant spanning an area of one square kilometre could produce 20,000 litres of kerosene a day,” said Philipp Furler, a former doctoral student in Prof Steinfeld’s group.

“A plant the size of Switzerland could cover the kerosene needs of the entire aviation industry. Our goal for the future is to efficiently produce sustainable fuels with our technology and thereby mitigate global CO2 emissions.”

ALGORITHM BOOSTS TURBINE POWER

Thanks to an algorithm developed at Stanford University in the US, the wind industry will be able to get more power out of its turbines.

A solitary turbine produces most power when pointing directly into the wind.

However, when tightly packed lines of turbines face the wind, wakes from upwind generators can interfere massively with those downwind, reducing the amount of electricity generated.

But by pointing turbines slightly away from oncoming wind – called wake-steering – it is possible to reduce that interference and raise production.

“To meet global targets for renewable energy generation, we need to find ways to generate a lot more energy from existing wind farms,” said John Dabiri, professor of civil and environmental engineering and mechanical engineering at Stanford.

“The traditional focus has been on the performance of individual turbines in a wind farm, but we need to instead start thinking about the farm as a whole and not just as the sum of its parts.”

Attempts to show the benefits of misaligning turbines at a real wind farm have been hindered by challenges in finding a company willing to halt normal operations for an experiment and in calculating best angles for the turbine. Until now, that is.

First, the Stanford group developed a faster way to calculate the optimal misalignment angles for turbines.

Then they tested their calculations on a wind farm in Alberta, Canada, in collaboration with operator TransAlta Renewables.

The overall power output of the farm increased by up to 47% in low wind speeds – depending on the angle of the turbines – and by 7-13% in average wind speeds.

Wake steering also reduced the ebbs and flows of power that are normally a challenge with wind power.

Through wake steering, the front turbine produced less power, as expected. But it was found that, because of decreased wake effects, the downstream turbines generated significantly more power.

Although the researchers were unable to measure a change in annual power production because of the limited 10-day duration of this field test, the next step, said Prof Dabiri, is to run field tests for an entire year.

Variable output by wind farms makes managing the grid more difficult in two important ways.

In the Stanford study, the power improvement at low wind speeds was particularly high because turbines typically stop spinning below a minimum speed, cutting production entirely and forcing grid managers to rely on backup power.

In slow winds, wake-steering reduced the amount of time that speeds dropped below this minimum, the researchers found. Notably, the biggest gains were at night, when wind energy is typically most valuable as a complement to solar power.

The other is the need to match exactly the amount of electricity supplied and used in a region every moment to keep the grid reliable.

Air turbulence from wakes can make wind farm production erratic minute by minute – a time period too short to fire up a gas generator.

This in turn makes matching supply and demand more challenging for system operators in the very short term. They have tools to do so, but the tools can be expensive.

In the study, wake steering reduced the short-term variability of power production by up to 72%.

Additionally, reducing variability can help wind farm owners lower their operating costs. Turbulence in wakes can strain turbine blades and raise repair costs. Wake steering could reduce turbine fatigue.

Prev Next
The Automobile Times
The SME Times
The Retail Times
The Dairy Times
The Pharma Times
The Power Times
The Property Times
The Hotel Times
Order cheap Zithromax, Order Zithromax, Cheap Zithromax, Purchase Zithromax fast delivery In order to have effective treatment of difficult bacterial diseases, doctors prescribe Zithromax. We guarantee cheap Zithromax, high quality drug and service.

Buy Zithromax online Order Zithromax online

Men and women are impacted by several distinct illnesses that cause malaise and numerous other unpleasant symptoms, and may even cause death, when symptoms are neglected or left without having proper treatment. Among essentially the most frequent diseases is bacterial illnesses and they frequently can emerge like a complication of viral ailments or straightforward cold. Bacterial ailments are evoked by one-celled organisms, by bacteria. There are a whole lot on the in the world and in human physique. We got utilised to cohabitation with them. They reside in our physique as well as help to many processes in our body. Some bacteria are good and a few are malignant, some bacteria in distinct amount is good and also useful and a few in increased number are is dangerous for our health.

Extremely frequently right after straightforward cold, when patient begins recovering, a sudden worsening begins; typically it is a sign of bacterial illness which has joined, even though organism was weakened by an additional issue. Typically human body having a support of organic defensive system fights with foreign factors and invisible malignant beasts and as a result it may protect itself, but as a result of naturally low immune system or weakened in some circumstances or because of receiving into epidemic atmosphere, individuals can get ill because of bacteria and they need to have proper treatment by medicines that are in a position to kill all dangerous bacteria within the physique. Antibiotics have been developed for this objective. Antibiotics are medicines that kill little one-celled organisms in human body. The most common are respiratory bacterial ailments, virtually every person knows what exactly is it and how does it hearts. Any illness ought to be examined by the doctor then individual approach in treatment should be assigned. There are a lot of different antibiotic medicines; some have been created with narrow effectiveness, for killing only distinct malignant bacteria and a few were created with wide spectrum of effectiveness for successful remedy of bacterial ailments when a sort of bacteria is tough to recognize and to choose up corresponding antibiotic. The truth is, doctors frequently prescribe medicines with wide selection of effectiveness due to the fact they may be the most effective. Zithromax is amongst the most advised medicines which can be typically utilized for successful therapy of bacterial illnesses. Right now a lot of folks buy Zythromax, because they trust it.

Buy Zithromax online Where to buy Zithromax?

As most medicines it may be bought in classic drugstore, it is possible to go to nearby drugstore or discover it virtually in any mall center. It can be there but there is no guarantee of availability. A lot of people buy Zithromax online because it just isn't only a guarantee of availability but in addition great cost at top quality medicine. Today a lot of people are involved into quick contemporary quickly pace of life, and there is certainly constantly no time for going to drugstore. Now you're in our online retailer, where we are glad to present you our ideal value and excellent service with quickly delivery appropriate for your door. Additionally, absolutely everyone canBuy Zithromax online without prescription, as a result you've no obstacles in purchasing necessary medicine for you personally.

Cheap Zithromax online without prescription fast delivery

Zythromax can be helpful within your house medicine chest. Order Zythromax and be calm about your selection of medicines at property, since even in case of bacterial illness, you will be able to begin remedy with out delay. Zythromax has wide selection of effectiveness, but the most successful it may be in case of bacterial illness of ENT organs. Our on the web shop offers the top price tag, and everyone can order inexpensive Zythromax here and save money and time. We care about our customers and give only top quality and effective medicine for them, as a result absolutely everyone might be confident in acquiring safe Zithromax. Furthermore, worldwide delivery is obtainable for each and every purchaser, regardless of their country. Also we give specific rapidly delivery in some countries and every person, who buys Zythromax in USA, is assured the next day delivery; which is often essential for therapy that shouldn’t be delayed.

The best way to get Zythromax?

It really is rapidly and simple approach, especially if you had an knowledge of on the internet acquiring. A purchaser ought to add selected drug into virtual basket for getting, then specify required quantity of these tablets, fill in acquiring card and specify all essential information for preserving of quickly and proper delivery by our on-line store. If you have some troubles with putting an order or you must get more data about this medicine or our operate, you constantly can get competent assist from our online experts-consultants, who are usually on-line right here and usually can help you at any time of day or evening, when it truly is hassle-free for you personally. Should you purchase Zythromax in Canada, you are able to be sure in acquiring your order very quickly. And not too long ago we have created every thing necessary for the subsequent day delivery in UK and now every person, who buys Zythromax in UK may also depend on fast delivery. Every single our loyal client can get discount Zythromax, ask our on the internet consultants about bonus system.

Therapy by Zythromax might be diverse, because almost everything depends upon the illness and what bacteria was the trigger for its occurrence. Generally remedy lasts for 5 days, but the best strategy to identify scheme of treatment is consultation with a medical doctor. Essential rules about therapy by antibiotics: remedy needs to be completed, for instance, if therapy need to last a single week, but symptoms of illness disappeared in 3 days; treatment needs to be continued and completed. It is critical to kill all dangerous bacterium in an effort to keep away from relapse of the disease that is usually treated tougher. Also patient must use probiotics. If you have to purchase Zythromax tablets, use our on-line shop, listed here are the best offers for our customers.

Here is an chance to purchase generic Zythromax. It's a drug that has the identical effect along with the exact same components, but an additional name and another manufacturer. Generics are less expensive and often with their help folks can save much more income. You'll be able to ask our on the internet consultants to assist you to locate an suitable analogue.

Reviews:

  • When I was prescribed Zythromax I had no time for going to drugstore and I decided to order it on the web and it was my very first time, Every little thing was clear and fast, additionally, the cost is much decrease than in my nearby drugstore.
  • I had doubts about on-line acquiring of drugs, but once I tried as I needed Zithromax and required to save income. I was surprised by packing instruction service and quick results of treatment. Your on the internet store is really great.
  • I had bacterial poisoning and it was terrible. I was treated in hospital for practically one week and I was taking Zithromax pills that helped me considerably to recover.
  • Every time when somebody says me about discounts in regional pharmacy I am just smiling, since I know that anyway the top value is right here.
  • Zithromax is amongst the ideal antibiotics. I am prescribed this drug for the following time and it's really effective for me. I've an additional bacterial disease, but Zithromax shows its high-efficiency once again.
You are here:   HomeContactsExtrasOverviewContent ViewsCategory List ViewLow carbon energy eclipsing oil and gas in academic circles
Drive Green for Life
The Automobile Times
The SME Times portal